What’s the deal with Passive Voice?


We’ve all heard the writing advice, “Avoid passive voice,” but many writers seem to be confused about what passive voice really means. Rather than waste time demonizing “was” and “is” writers need to know what passive voice really is and when to use it correctly. (Yes, there is a place for it!)

What is Passive Voice anyway?

I’m a member of several Facebook writing groups. In one of these groups, members like to post two sentences and ask which one sounds better. I find this practice to be useless, since, without the surrounding context, it’s impossible to determine which sentence works best. At its worst, this has inspired lengthy commentary of compounding bad advice that, if heeded, would lead an unsuspecting writer down a horrible path.

One of these recent discussions was a writer asking for advice on rewriting her sentence in active voice.

The room was cold and drafty.

This isn’t passive voice.

The verb was/is does not automatically mean the sentence is in the passive voice.

Passive voice is a sentence whose subject does not perform the action.

“John was attacked by wild dogs.” -passive. John is the subject, but the dogs are performing the action.

“Wild dogs attacked John.”– active. Dogs is the subject and the dogs are performing the action.

Use the zombie test to check for passive voice

Definitive guide to using passive voice

One of my favorite ways to check for passive voice is to use the “by zombies” trick. (If anyone knows the original inventor of this device, please let me know in the comments so I can credit it.) If you can insert “by zombies” after the main verb and the sentence makes sense, then you have passive voice.

John was attacked (by zombies) Passive voice. John is the subject of the sentence, but he is not performing the action “attacked.”

John attacked (by zombies) Active voice. John is the subject and he is performing the action.

However, this test is not fool-proof

John was annoyed (by zombies) Not passive.

In this instance, annoyed is functioning as an adjective. Annoyed describes John’s emotional state making this a linking verb rather than passive voice. This is an exceptional case because annoyed can be either an adjective or a verb depending on context. If the sentence were “John was annoyed by zombies,” the word’s function in that sentence is unclear. Is John feeling annoyed about zombies in general, (in which case annoyed would be an adjective and the sentence: active voice- linking verb) or are the zombies actively antagonizing poor John? (Which would indicate passive voice.)

Was/is doesn’t always mean passive voice.

Every time I see someone post on Twitter that they are removing every instance of the verb “to be” from their manuscripts, I shudder. There is nothing wrong with these verbs. They are an important part of the English language.

Active vs. passive voice and action vs. linking verbs

Most of the confusion seems to come from the close association of action verbs with active voice. These are not synonymous. Active voice is a sentence whose subject performs the action. Action verbs describe what a subject does: run, jump, stand etc.

Active voice sentences can use either action verbs or linking verbs.

John smelled the flowers. (Active voice-Action verb)
John smelled like flowers. (Active voice-Linking verb)

Notice that some verbs can function as action or linking verbs. In the first sentence John is performing the action: smelled. In the second example smelled connects to subject (John) to the words that describe him (flowers).

Linking verbs are those that connect a subject to the word or words that describe the subject.

The most common linking verbs are forms of to be: am, is, are, was, were, being, been. Other linking verbs include, appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, and turn.

John is angry
John feels sad
John looks tired.

These are all active voice but use linking verbs.

Another important usage of forms of “to be” is the progressive tense.

Progressive tense combines a form of “to be” with an action verb.

John was sitting in a chair.

Eliminating the helping verb (was) in this case would change the meaning of the sentence.

John sat in the chair.

In the first example, John was already in the chair when the scene began. In the second example, John began the scene standing and then sat at some point during the scene. Blindly eliminating every “to be” verb from your manuscript is a recipe for disaster.

So why do so many writing advice blogs seem to hate the verb “to be?”

The problem comes in amateur usage.

Correctly using Passive voice

As a normal rule, passive voice should be avoided because it confuses the subject and action creating a weaker sentence. However, there are times when the use of passive voice is necessary to create a desired effect.

For example, this is the opening sentence from my query letter

18-year-old Koa only has a few months left to complete a year-long solo tour of her oceanic kingdom when she is attacked by pirates who want to steal her water dragon.

In this sentence, I chose to use passive voice to keep the focus on Koa, rather than switch to the pirates. I could have broken the sentence into two, but that would have changed the weight of the paragraph. Since the first two sentences of the query introduce the two POV characters, I wanted them to have equal weight. Giving one character more sentences would have thrown off the balance between them.

Using passive voice is acceptable if you want to keep the focus on the recipient or if the party performing the action is unimportant or unknown.

John was mugged.ย Passive voice. We don’t know who mugged John.
The papers were lost.ย Passive voice. We don’t know who lost the papers.

Correctly using Linking verbs

Overuse of linking verbs can lead to pages of static descriptions and characters who do nothing.

Writing bloggers will tell you to combat this with “active settings” or similar devices. For example,

The wall was tall. becomes The wall loomed over us.

However, active settings can also be overdone. Consider:

It was raining the day they brought John’s body home.

The amateur rewrite might try:
Rain poured from the sky the day they brought John’s body home. (Which sounds ridiculous, where else would rain come from?)
Rain soaked into our bones the day they brought John’s body home. (ick, overly dramatic and sounds like writing pa-twey!)

There’s nothing wrong with “It was raining.” It sounds natural because this is the way people actually speak. Avoiding all linking verbs will leave your prose sounding overworked and unnatural.

Correctly using Progressive tenses

Unless you are overusing this construction, there is no reason to eliminate progressive tenses from your writing.

Everyone has a demon. Mine is sitting in a beat up leather recliner smoking a menthol.

In this sentence, the demon is already sitting in the chair when the narration begins. Eliminating the “is” would change the meaning of the sentence. Again, there is nothing wrong with using forms of “to be.”

Stop demonizing was and is

Forms of the verb “to be” have a place in your writing. Progressive tenses, linking verbs, and even passive voice are tools in your writing arsenal. All three are useful and should not be thoughtlessly eliminated. Examine each instance and see if you are using them correctly, and that you are achieving the desired effect. Rather than demonizing “to be,” master its use and take your writing to the next level.

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41 thoughts on “What’s the deal with Passive Voice?”

  1. Great advice! This really helps clear things up! I don’t have a problem with “to be” verbs, but I do have a problem overusing them. I tend to use was/is as a crutch when I can make much more interesting sentences. But your post helps to remind me there is a time and place for everything.

  2. I use Yoast for my blogs and ProWritingAid for fiction. They constantly point out sentences with passive voice, whether they make sense or not. Sometimes you have to ignore the “rules” to convey your meaning.
    Thanks for an informative post.
    Cheryl from CherylSterilingBooks.com

  3. Great advice here. I start working on this after I’ve finished my story and I have the structure the way I want it. Then I look for every place I’ve used passive voice and check if it’s appropriate or not.

  4. Great post! Sometimes we need the refresher. And you weren’t at all boring like my elementary school teacher, lol. Poor John! You really put him through the shredder and with only one posy to console him.

  5. Great article! I personally hate seeing writers going through trying to eliminate every instance of ANY word. Every word in the English language exists for a reason, and can have a valuable purpose. Was/is definitely gets the worst rep though.

  6. I seriously cannot like this hard enough. I use the passive voice a lot in ordinary speech, and it drives my wife CRAZY because she disapproves of the passive voice on principle. I’ll say things like “It’s being thrown around” because I don’t actually know who’s doing the throwing, and she would always rather I say “People who I don’t know who they are or how many of them there are, I just know that there are enough of them that I’ve seen the after effects, they’re throwing around …”

    Who has time for that?

    I also feel like people can forget the significance of following your protagonist. If John is in a situation where a lot of things are happening to him and he’s not in control, it’s a lot more effective to keep the focus on John than it is to bounce from active subject to active subject every two sentences. The passive voice can be a great way to indicate helplessness or … well, passivity!

    Brilliant post!

  7. Thank you so much for this wonderful post. I have heard so much advice on what words to use and what words not to use, that I think I am making my manuscript worse. Sometimes, it is just raining.

  8. Great refresher! I was worried (by zombies) about this a few months back, and was able to find advice similar to yours after hunting and hunting, but yours is much clearer. I feel like all editors should bookmark this. I’m still unclear on how “John was annoyed,” can be active if, “John was mugged,” is passive.

    1. Great question! The confusion occurs because the word “annoyed” can be an adjective or a verb. In the sentence “John was annoyed.” Annoyed functions as an adjective because it describes John. If we change the linking verb “was” for another linking verb “felt” as in “John felt annoyed” the status as an adjective becomes clearer.

      However, just by adding “by zombies” to the original sentence things become muddied. In “John was annoyed by zombies,” the function of the word annoyed is unclear. Are the zombies minding their own business and John is feeling annoyed by their presence, or are the zombies antagonizing John?

      I hope this helps clarify things.

  9. Oh, and I agree. I often find that when authors and editors voice opinions about the use of certain types of words or phrases, they aren’t giving a balanced and realistic view. You can’t just eliminate entire segment of the English language from your writing.

  10. That you for this! Passive voice is something that still confuses me to this day (which, many novels and an agent later feels ridiculous to admit), and this clarified a lot for me.

  11. I’m so glad someone has written such a clear explanation of this, thank you! I see so many other writers on Facebook asking if they need to change sentences like ‘John was pale’. Yes you can use ‘John paled’, but it’s a completely different meaning. Hopefully now when they Google it they’ll find your blog ๐Ÿ™‚

  12. Hi! I love this post. I had an editor once tell me I needed to get rid of all of my uses of passive voice. I agree most of the time, but sometimes I purposely use passive voice to add a layer of meaning to my words. I’m glad that I’m not the only one out here who thinks the passive voice is 100% evil. ๐Ÿ™‚

  13. OMG you’re SO right about was/is. I had an editor (for freelance work) once who had a rule: NO is/was. Anywhere. And I found that’s just crazy. I know it’s a sign of passive voice, but it’s not a hard-and-fast rule and trying to work around not using it made the text read awkward. My best advice on that would be to question any is/was and see if there’s a better word…but if it doesn’t read naturally, go with is/was!

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